Women lip plates and the ‘Donga’ (stick fighting) are the major features for both the surma and Mursi people of the Omo valley. The women of both people inserted clay or wooden plates on their lower lip perhaps as a symbol or expression of social status. In fact, there are several suggestions as to why lip plates were originally adopted.
Gondar was the 17th century capital of Ethiopia, and is notable for its Medieval Castles and churches. The city's unique Imperial compound contains a number of Castles built between 1632 and 1855 by various Emperors who reigned during this period. These dramatic Castles, unlike any other in Africa, display richness in architecture that reveals the Axumite traditions as well as the influence of Arabia.
Timket, feast of Epiphany is the greatest festival of the year falling on the 19 January just two weeks after the Ethiopian Christmas. It is actually a three-day affair beginning on the eve of Timket with dramatic and colourful processions. The following morning the great day itself, Christ's baptism in the Jordan River by John the Baptist is commemorated.
King Lalibela is credited with the foundation of the 11 rock-hewn churches in the 12th century. One of the world's most incredible man-made creations, they are a lasting monument to man's faith in God. Most travel writers describe these churches as the "eighth wonder of the world". These remarkable edifices were carved out of a solid rock, in a region where the ragged landscape still protects the churches from mass tourism. The 11 man-made churches are found in and around the town of Lalibela. Other churches are reached by a 45-minutes drive by 4x4 vehicle, or a three hour ride on mule-back.
It is common to see troop of Gelada baboons in the Simien Mountains. Found only in Ethiopia's high country, their 'sacred heart' a patch of bare skin on the chest distinguishes them from any other species of baboon.
One of the most important features of this region of Africa resulted from faulting and cracking on its eastern side. This has caused the Great Rift Valley, which extends from the Middle East to Mozambique, passing in a north-south direction right through Ethiopia. This shearing of the earth's surface occurred at the same time that the Arabian Peninsula, geologically a part of Africa, was sundered from the rest of the continent.